On my copy of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, the /bin directory contains 38 binaries.

the condition evaluation utillity. Used in shell scripting to evaluate expressions. Is exactly the same at the 'test' utility.
a popular unix shell
a utility that reads the contents of files and writes them out to STDOUT. cat can number lines with the n switch: cat -n <filename>
modifies the unix permissions of files. This tool is key to making files readable, writeable or executable.
copies a file or can copy a list of files into a directory
another unix command line shell. This shell is older than bash and is sometimes seen used in startup and configuration scripts.
displays or sets the date or time

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